The ugly rotten roots of the war on drugs..I started to ask Ehrlichman a series of earnest, wonky questions that he impatiently waved away. “You want to know what this was really all about?” he asked with the bluntness of a man who, after public disgrace and a stretch in federal prison, had little left to protect. “The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course we did.”
Ketamine's New Shot as a Depression TreatmentCharney, who’d gone on to work for the National Institutes of Health, initiated a replica study with 17 patients. “This was a population that had failed on average six different antidepressants, and some had also failed electroconvulsive therapy, which is generally regarded as a treatment of last resort,” says Husseini Manji, one of Charney’s co-authors, who’s now the global head of neuroscience for Janssen Research & Development, a Johnson & Johnson company. Within a day of getting one ketamine infusion, 70 percent of the subjects went into remission. Since then, scientists at institutions including Yale, Mount Sinai Hospital, and Baylor College of Medicine have performed dozens more studies that corroborate the findings. Additional studies show that ketamine works by producing long-lasting changes in the brain, reversing neural damage caused by stress and depression and potentially decreasing inflammation and cortisol levels.
Environment programs our behavior:: to change the behavior, change the environmental cues"Once a behavior had been repeated a lot, especially if the person does it in the same setting, you can successfully change what people want to do. But if they've done it enough, their behavior doesn't follow their intentions," Neal explains. Neal says this has to do with the way that our physical environments come to shape our behavior. "People, when they perform a behavior a lot — especially in the same environment, same sort of physical setting — outsource the control of the behavior to the environment," Neal says. […] consider what happens when you perform a very basic everyday behavior like getting into a car. "Of course on one level, that seems like the simplest task possible," Neal says, "but if you break it down, there's really a myriad set of complex actions that are performed in sequence to do that." You use a certain motion to put your key in the lock, and then physically manipulate your body to get into the seat. There is another set of motions to insert the key in the ignition. "All of this is actually very complicated and someone who had never driven a car before would have no ability to do that, but it becomes second nature to us," Neal points out. "[It's] so automatic that we can do it while we are conducting complex other tasks, like having conversations." Throughout the process, you haven't thought for a second about what you are doing, you are just responding to the different parts of the car in the sequence you've learned. "And very much of our day goes off in this way," Wood says. "About 45 percent of what people do every day is in the same environment and is repeated." […] In this way, Neal says, our environments come to unconsciously direct our behavior. Even behaviors that we don't want, like smoking. "For a smoker, the view of the entrance to their office building — which is a place that they go to smoke all the time — becomes a powerful mental cue to go and perform that behavior," Neal says.
During Burrage's initial walk through the complex, she spoke through the microphone to the police officers, frustrated that she didn't recognize anybody in the parking lot. "Nobody," she muttered. "I'm gonna knock on this person's door." Morgan greeted her inside. "What's up?" he said enthusiastically. "Have a seat!" Burrage explained she couldn't stay and asked Morgan where she could score drugs. She said she was working as a middle-man for another buyer interested in the Duke Manor market. Morgan couldn't suggest anyone in the complex that would sell to Burrage. But he admitted he had his own small stash. "I just keep it around the house," he said. "I'll show you what it look like." Inside his bedroom, Morgan showed Burrage drugs that aren't very distinguishable on the video. Morgan had been drinking that day and suggested that Burrage get high with him. She wasn't interested. "I'm not trying to get in trouble," she said, leaving. "Sorry about that, guys," she told the police officers through the microphone as she walked across the parking lot. When she returned to the police truck, she explained Morgan was not a dealer; nonetheless, police sent her back out to score drugs from him. Upon her arrival, Morgan suggested that she buy drugs from someone living on the floor above him. Burrage went upstairs, but the man at that apartment had no drugs to sell her. Burrage returned to Morgan's place. There is no footage of a drug transaction on the video. But when she reunited with the police officers, they searched her and found a bag of crack; she didn't have the $20 they had given her. An SBI analyst later determined that the crack amounted to one-tenth of a gram.