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High-fat diet and gut bacteria linked to insulin resistance -- ScienceDaily

Overall, the research highlights a robust connection between high fat diets, obesity and the lack of gut IgA in promoting inflammation and insulin resistance. The knowledge that this class of antibodies regulate pathogenic bacteria, and protects against a "leaky gut," and additional complications of obesity, is a powerful tool in the fight against diabetes.

Rye is healthy, thanks to an interplay of microbes -- ScienceDaily

Many of the compounds found in rye are processed by gut bacteria before getting absorbed into the body. The study found that gut microbes and microbes found in sourdough produce compounds that are partially the same. However, gut microbes also produce derivatives of trimethylglycine, also known as betaine, contained in rye. An earlier study by the research group has shown that at least one of these derivatives reduces the need for oxygen in heart muscle cells, which may protect the heart from ischemia or possibly even enhance its performance. The findings can explain some of the health benefits of rye, including better blood sugar levels and a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Bread Affects Clinical Parameters and Induces Gut Microbiome-Associated Personal Glycemic Responses: Cell Metabolism

numerous individuals exhibit opposite PPGRs to white and sourdough bread (Figure 4A). This result is further supported by previous evidence regarding the high interpersonal variability in PPGRs to real-life meals (Zeevi et al., 2015).

Bread Affects Clinical Parameters and Induces Gut Microbiome-Associated Personal Glycemic Responses: Cell Metabolism

Several studies indicated that even short-term dietary interventions, whether animal-based, plant-based (David et al., 2014), or involving barley bread consumption (Kovatcheva-Datchary et al., 2015), result in significant, rapid, and reproducible alterations to the gut microbiome.

Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome | Nature

Here we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals2, reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation.

Antibiotics Resistance: Scientists Develop Algorithm-Based Technique To Personalize Antibiotic Treatments

“It is now possible to computationally predict the level of bacterial resistance for infection-causing bacteria. This is done by weighing of demographic data, including age, gender, pregnancy … together with levels of resistance [which are] measured in the patient’s previous urine cultures as well as their drug purchase history,” Israel Hayom quoted Yelin. For the research, the scientists analyzed over 700,000 urine cultures. Then they focussed on urine tract infections that involve various types of bacteria, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis. The researchers then developed an algorithm, which was based on antibiotic purchases made in the past 10 years for over five million cases. The algorithm provided treatment recommendations based on the infection’s antibiotics resistance.

Link found between gut bacteria, successful joint replacement -- ScienceDaily

In normal mice, immune system markers in the bloodstream rise during an infection, as the body responds. But in the study, these markers did not rise in mice with unhealthy microbiomes that also developed infections. The results suggest that mice with unhealthy microbiomes may have compromised immune systems.

Computational tool predicts how gut microbiome changes over time: New insights into gut microbiome dynamics could lead to better diagnosis, treatment of disease -- ScienceDaily

The researchers then used MTV-LMM to surface new insights into microbiome dynamics. For instance, they demonstrated that, in both infants and adults, gut microbiome community composition can indeed be accurately predicted based on earlier observations of the community. They also applied the model to data from 39 infants and revealed a key shift around the age of 9 months in how the gut microbiome changes over time.

Performance-enhancing bacteria found in the microbiomes of elite athletes: Introducing this bacteria to sedentary individuals improves exercise capacity -- ScienceDaily

Colonies of bacteria residing in our guts have a powerful impact on our health. Exercise is an important component of a healthy lifestyle meant to ward off diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Many people with metabolic disorders are not able to exercise at the level needed to see such benefits. Supplementing their microbiome using a probiotic capsule containing Veillonella could give them the boost they need for effective exercise. (Direct dosing with propionate pill would not work, as the short chain fatty acid would be broken down by digestive juices before it could take effect.) Dr. Scheiman has since spun this idea off into a company targeted at athletes. "The microbiome is such a powerful metabolic engine," says Dr. Kostic. This is one of the first studies to directly show a strong example of symbiosis between microbes and their human host. "It's very clear. It creates this positive feedback loop. The host is producing something that this particular microbe favors. Then in return, the microbe is creating something that benefits the host," he says. "This is a really important example of how the microbiome has evolved ways to become this symbiotic presence in the human host."

New therapy targets gut bacteria to prevent and reverse food allergies -- ScienceDaily

Recent insights about the microbiome -- the complex ecosystem of microorganisms that live in the gut and other body sites -- have suggested that an altered gut microbiome may play a pivotal role in the development of food allergies. A new study, led by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital and Boston Children's Hospital, identifies the species of bacteria in the human infant gut that protect against food allergies, finding changes associated with the development of food allergies and an altered immune response. In preclinical studies in a mouse model of food allergy, the team found that giving an enriched oral formulation of five or six species of bacteria found in the human gut protected against food allergies and reversed established disease by reinforcing tolerance of food allergens. The team's results are published in Nature Medicine.

A one-size-fits-all approach to nutrition doesn't work, even for twins, gene study finds - ABC News

“Genetics may not explain most nutritional differences among people,” said Spector. “Most of this variation that affects our weight, risk of diabetes and heart problems is potentially modifiable for an individual.” The researchers also analyzed how a person's metabolism may influence food choices, such as if it drives them to prefer savory or sweet foods or vice versa. However, Spector said that it was still unknown "how food preferences relate to food responses, but we do have the data.” Spector’s study also found that microbiomes differ between identical twins, who shared only about 37% of their gut microbes with each other. By comparison, the study found that unrelated people share about 35% of the same gut microbiota.

The FBI searched the offices of microbiome startup uBiome | TechCrunch

“Regrettably… we are terminating our consumer program. Our decision to do so is attributable to the simple fact that the cost of providing the service exceeds what our customers can pay for it,” the company wrote on its website. “We believe the costs of collecting the genetic, blood and microbiome assays that form the foundation of the program will eventually decline to a point where the program can be delivered to consumers cost-effectively. However, we are unable to continue to operate at a loss until that time arrives.”

Investors have been snubbing the microbiome. That may be changing

The field needed to find some basic tools before it had a chance of developing a drug successfully, she said, like better biomarkers to determine how and where a drug was working. For example, in one paper, Synlogic scientists showed that their drug was working by tracking an isotope markers through the bacteria’s metabolic pathway and by measuring levels of a chemical produced by their bacterial “drug,” SYNB1618. “One of the challenges that microbiome companies face is that you can tell what goes in the top end, you can tell what comes out the bottom end, but you can’t tell what happens in the middle,” Brennan said during a presentation earlier this month. “There’s a lot of groundwork that’s required. Papers don’t make good drugs,” she said in an interview afterward.

Drug Companies and Doctors Battle Over the Future of Fecal Transplants - The New York Times

Mark Smith, a microbiologist at M.I.T., was halfway through his pitch with a group of pharmaceutical executives when one of them interrupted to ask if the meeting was a prank. “I can’t believe you wasted my time with this crazy idea,” the man said, Dr. Smith later recalled. That was 2012. Later that year he helped found OpenBiome, the nonprofit stool bank that now supplies most of the fecal matter for transplants in the United States. Three years ago, he started his own drug company, Finch Therapeutics, which has raised $77 million. Over the past decade, tens of thousands of Americans with C. diff have been cured through fecal transplants, often with a single dose that can bring patients back from the brink of death. The treatment has more than an 80 percent success rate, according to several studies, and many patients feel better within hours of receiving the procedure, which is usually administered through colonoscopy or capsules containing desiccated fecal matter. The F.D.A. has not formally approved the therapy but it has suspended enforcement of its rules for patients who have failed on antibiotics while it figures out the best way to regulate a regimen that, until recently, was sometimes performed at home by desperate patients using an enema, saline and a relative’s stool. Ms. Duff, the head of the C. diff patients group, credits her own recovery from the disease to a homemade concoction her husband created with his own stool in the kitchen blender.

The neuroactive potential of the human gut microbiota in quality of life and depression | Nature Microbiology

Butyrate-producing Faecalibacterium and Coprococcus bacteria were consistently associated with higher quality of life indicators. Together with Dialister, Coprococcus spp. were also depleted in depression, even after correcting for the confounding effects of antidepressants. Using a module-based analytical framework, we assembled a catalogue of neuroactive potential of sequenced gut prokaryotes. Gut–brain module analysis of faecal metagenomes identified the microbial synthesis potential of the dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid as correlating positively with mental quality of life and indicated a potential role of microbial γ-aminobutyric acid production in depression.

High-fat diet and age alter microflora and cause inflammation in heart failure: Experiments with mice show involvement of gut bacteria and spleen in this heart pathology -- ScienceDaily

They found that the obesity-generating diet caused a sharp increase in bacteria belonging to the genus Allobaculum, phylum Firmicutes. The obesity-generating diet also increased the proportion of neutrophils in the blood of young mice. In aged mice, a similar increase in the proportion of neutrophils was found for both old mice fed a standard diet and old mice fed the obesity-generating diet. The spleen, a secondary immune organ, is a known reservoir for leukocytes that are released after heart injury. Those splenic leukocytes move to the heart to begin tissue repair and help resolve inflammation. Halade and colleagues found that the obesity-generating diet and aging led to neutrophil swarming and an altered leukocyte profile after heart attack. They also observed splenic structural deformities in these mice and a decrease in splenic CD169-positive macrophages.

Exercise might improve health by increasing gut bacterial diversity -- ScienceDaily

The findings suggest that exercise at a sufficiently high intensity, to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, may support health through favourable alterations in the presence, activity and clustering of gut microbes. Such exercise-induced improvements, in cardiorespiratory fitness, often correspond with central (e.g. increased volume of blood pumped by the heart each beat) and peripheral adaptations (e.g. increased number of capillaries to transport oxygen from blood to muscles).

Newly isolated human gut bacterium reveals possible connection to depression -- ScienceDaily

The research team from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, Northeastern University and elsewhere made the connection by first isolating the KLE1738, a bacterium that has a surprising dependency upon a brain chemical called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). "The association of microbial GABAmetabolism with mental health is highly compelling," said Jack Gilbert, group leader for microbial ecology at Argonne who also holds new faculty appointments at the University of California, San Diego, in the Department of Pediatrics and at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. "The general ability of the microbiome to produce and/or consume GABA has not been as broadly described before, and a bacterium dependent on GABAhas never been reported."

Feces transplantation: Effective treatment facing an uncertain future -- ScienceDaily

The study showed a large and significant difference between the faeces transplantation and the antibiotics, which are today considered to be state of the art: A total of 22 out of the 24 patients were cured after just a single faeces transplantation, while only ten out of 24 patients were cured using the antibiotic fidaxomicin. Results were even worse for the 16 patients who tested the most well-proven type of antibiotic which is called vancomycin. In this case, only three out of 16 trail participants were cured. Additionally, more than half of the participants in the trial from the group who were given antibiotics suffered from a Clostridium infection again after completing the course of antibiotics. This group therefore received what is known as a 'rescue' faeces transplantation -- and ninety per cent of them were cured by this. Out of the 120 referred patients, 56 were not included in the randomised trial, either because they were too ill or because they could not cope with participating. So a total of 49 patients subsequently received a faeces transplantation because there were no other options left, and of these 39 were literally brought back to life.

Fruit and vegetables may be important for mental as well as physical well-being: Consuming more fruit and vegetables can improve your mental well-being, according to a new study. -- ScienceDaily

Dr Howley said: "There appears to be accumulating evidence for the psychological benefits of fruits and vegetables. Despite this, the data show that the vast majority of people in the UK still consume less than their five-a-day. "Encouraging better dietary habits may not just be beneficial to physical health in the long run but may also improve mental well-being in the shorter term."

Gut Bacteria Linked to Depression Identified – Neuroscience News

Mireia Valles-Colomer (VIB-KU Leuven): ‘Many neuroactive compounds are produced in the human gut. We wanted to see which gut microbes could participate in producing, degrading, or modifying these molecules. Our toolbox not only allows to identify the different bacteria that could play a role in mental health conditions, but also the mechanisms potentially involved in this interaction with the host. For example, we found that the ability of microorganisms to produce DOPAC, a metabolite of the human neurotransmitter dopamine, was associated with better mental quality of life.’

A gut bacterium as a fountain of youth? Well, let’s start with reversing insulin resistance - Orlando Sentinel

But insulin resistance is also linked to a rogue’s gallery of ills, from obesity and inflammation to the sagging immunity and frailty that comes with advancing age. If a readily available means of slowing or reversing insulin resistance could be identified, it might have broad and powerful anti-aging effects (in addition to protecting some of the world’s 650 million adults who are obese against developing type 2 diabetes). First identified in 2004, Akkermansia muciniphila inhabits the large intestine and is thought to account for between 1% and 5% of all intestinal bacteria in adults. Scientists suspect it helps preserve the coat of mucus that lines the walls of our intestines. It may also play a role in making the polyphenols we eat in plant-based foods more available to our cells. Evidence is mounting that A. muciniphila is involved in obesity, glucose metabolism and intestinal immunity. For instance, a 2018 study of cancer patients suggests that it plays a role in immune response. Compared to patients who failed to be helped by a new generation of immunotherapy, those who did had a greater abundance of Akkermansia in their guts. When researchers took the stool of a patient who responded positively to the cancer-fighting therapy and transplanted it into lab animals with human cancers, the recipients became more likely to respond positively to the same treatment. In the new research, a team from the National Institute on Aging examined the molecular chain of events that appears to result from A. muciniphila’s depletion in mice and macaque monkeys. And they assessed the effects of restoring this gut microbe to elderly animals. First, they documented that the guts of older animals had markedly smaller populations of A. muciniphila than the guts of young animals, and that as A. muciniphila became more scarce, so did butyrate, one of the gut’s key protectors. The deficiency of these two substances caused the mucous walls of the of the aged animals’ intestines to thin and grow leaky. That corrosive process unleashed a chain of events that touched off inflammation, prompted an immune response and, in a final step, increased insulin resistance. Key to that final step was the accumulation in the gut of a specific kind of immune cell called 4BL cells. If the detrimental chain of events was to be disrupted, the accumulation of those 4BL cells probably had to be stopped, the researchers surmised. The researchers also documented what appeared to be a role for A. muciniphila in fostering healthy diversity among the garden of other microbes that colonize the gut. In animals with scant populations of A. muciniphila, a host of other common gut bacteria — as well as their beneficial byproducts, particularly butyrate — also suffered.

Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model. - PubMed - NCBI

An interaction model, controlling for demographics, general consumption of healthful foods, and exercise frequency, showed that exercise frequency, neuroticism, and fermented food consumption significantly and independently predicted social anxiety. Moreover, fermented food consumption also interacted with neuroticism in predicting social anxiety. Specifically, for those high in neuroticism, higher frequency of fermented food consumption was associated with fewer symptoms of social anxiety. Taken together with previous studies, the results suggest that fermented foods that contain probiotics may have a protective effect against social anxiety symptoms for those at higher genetic risk, as indexed by trait neuroticism.

Gut bacteria may control movement: Study suggests that bacteria may regulate neuronal circuits behind movement in flies -- ScienceDaily

observed that germ-free flies, which did not carry bacteria, were hyperactive. For instance, they walked faster, over greater distances, and took shorter rests than flies that had normal levels of microbes. Dr. Mazmanian and his team investigated ways in which gut bacteria may affect behavior in fruit flies. "Locomotion is important for a number of activities such as mating and searching for food. It turns out that gut bacteria may be critical for fundamental behaviors in animals," said Dr. Mazmanian. Fruit flies carry between five and 20 different species of bacteria and Dr. Mazmanian's team treated the germ-free animals with individual strains of those microbes. When the flies received Lactobacillus brevis, their movements slowed down to normal speed. L. brevis was one of only two species of bacteria that restored normal behavior in the germ-free flies. Dr. Mazmanian's group also discovered that the molecule xylose isomerase (Xi), a protein that breaks down sugar and is found in L. brevis, may be critical to this process. Isolating the molecule and treating germ-free flies with it was sufficient to slow down the speedwalkers.

Six months and still not normal after antibiotics

Now, an international team of researchers led from the University of Copenhagen and Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen report when 3 antibiotics were given to young healthy men for 4 days it caused an almost complete eradication of gut bacteria, followed by a gradual recovery of most bacterial species over a period of six months. After the six months, however, the study participants were still missing nine of their common beneficial bacteria and a few new potentially non-desirable bacteria had colonized the gut. The findings are published today in Nature Microbiology.

Endurance Exercise Training Has Beneficial Effects on Gut Bacteria Composition - Neuroscience News

“We found that phospholipids and cholesterol in VLDL particles decreased in response to exercise. These changes are beneficial for cardiometabolic health because VLDL transports lipids from the liver to peripheral tissues, converts into ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol in the circulation, and thus has detrimental cardiovascular effects.” Exercise training also decreased Vascular adhesion protein-1 activity, which can have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects especially on vasculature, though the underlying mechanisms could not be determined in this study. Whether Akkermansia mediates the health benefits of exercise is under further investigation