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Effects of intermittent and continuous calorie restriction on body weight and metabolism over 50 wk: a randomized controlled trial | The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Oxford Academic

Loge relative weight change over the intervention phase was −7.1% ± 0.7% (mean ± SEM) with ICR, −5.2% ± 0.6% with CCR, and −3.3% ± 0.6% with the control regimen (Poverall < 0.001, PICR vs. CCR = 0.053). Despite slightly greater weight loss with ICR than with CCR, there were no significant differences between the groups in the expression of 82 preselected genes in adipose tissue implicated in pathways linking obesity to chronic diseases. At the final follow-up assessment (week 50), weight loss was −5.2% ± 1.2% with ICR, −4.9% ± 1.1% with CCR, and −1.7% ± 0.8% with the control regimen (Poverall = 0.01, PICR vs. CCR = 0.89). These effects were paralleled by proportional changes in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes. There were no significant differences between ICR and CCR regarding various circulating metabolic biomarkers.

Seeing and smelling food prepares the mouse liver for digestion -- ScienceDaily

A previous study published in Cell in 2015 by another team of researchers found that sensory perception of food by lab mice was enough to trigger the neural pathways normally fueled by eating. Specifically, perceiving food inhibited AgRP neurons, which stimulate appetite, and activated POMC neurons, which induce satiety and suppress eating. The new study built on that research, focusing on how the changes in these neural pathways sent signals that affected metabolic activities in the liver. Here, the researchers found that within five minutes of lab mice perceiving food, the changes in POMC neuron activity were enough to induce a rapid signaling cascade that activated the mTOR and xbp1 signaling pathways. These pathways are normally activated when the liver takes up amino acids from digested food and help increase the protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which assembles proteins from the amino acids found in food.