Not mere trickery: Effects of behavioral nudges persist despite disclosure -- ScienceDaily
Next, research participants were presented with five specific medical treatments to prolong life, such as CPR, dialysis and intensive care unit admission, and for each they indicated a preference for pursuing the treatment, declining it, or leaving the decision to a surrogate or health professional. Default options were randomly assigned to either accept or reject life-prolonging treatments. Half of the participants were told about the use of defaults before they completed the forms and the other half after. Then, all participants completed steps one and two again, but without any defaults set.
The researchers found that preferences for comfort in the general directive were so fixed that they were not affected by defaults or disclosure of defaults. However, defaults for specific treatments influenced final choices irrespective of whether the intervention was disclosed ahead of time.